Thursday, October 26, 2017

The Assassination of John F. Kennedy, The 35th President of the United States of America ( Excerpt of Famous Political Assassinations in the Last Two Centuries: How They Affected the World)





John F. Kennedy, White House photo portrait, looking up.jpg 


John F. Kennedy





Born on May 29, 1917, John F. Kennedy was the 35th president of the United States from 1961–63. His assassination on November 22, 1963, as he was riding in a motorcade in Dallas, made him the youngest US president to die in office. His presidency was marked by the highest tension America ever had with the states of the communist world. These included the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the construction of the Berlin wall and his Berlin speech, and a multifold increase in American military involvement in Vietnam. Even so, he managed to secure memorable achievements such as the Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty, the Alliance for Progress, the establishment of the American Peace Corps, developments in the Space Race, the Trade Expansion Act to lower tariffs, and desegregation, which he accomplished working with the Civil Rights Movement under the leadership of Martin Luther King Jr.


John F. Kennedy made history in the USA by becoming the youngest man and the first Roman Catholic that the country ever elected to the presidency of the United States. He began his memorable presidency with his equally memorable inaugural address, where he called upon Americans “to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle…against the common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself.”


However, when he declared that:
“In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this responsibility—I welcome it…The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it—and the glow from that fire can truly light the world. And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country.”

It was a highlight that his presidency would be different from those of his predecessors.


However, his expected two-tern presidency was cut short not up to three years into his stay in the Oval Office by the bullets of his assassin(s). Lee Harvey Oswald, a self-described communist, was accused of killing President John F. Kennedy in Dallas, Texas with three shots at 12:30 pm on November 22, 1963, from a window on the sixth floor of a depository building, using a mail-order rifle, and was formally arraigned for the “Murder of President Kennedy” an hour later.


Jack Ruby, a distraught Dallas nightclub owner, shot Oswald dead on the morning of November 24, while he was being transferred from a jail cell to an interrogation office. The United States judiciary system tried and found him guilty of murder on March 14, 1964, and as punishment sentenced him to death. A Texas appeals court reversed the conviction in October 1966, but Ruby died, apparently from a blood clot complicated by cancer on January 3, 1967, before a new trial could be held.


Kennedy’s Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson succeeded him. The official conclusion by the FBI and the Warren Commission that Oswald was the lone assassin, was sharply criticized. The United States House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) agreed that Oswald fired the shots that killed the President John F. Kennedy, but the committee also concluded that Kennedy was likely assassinated as the result of a conspiracy. Most Americans who are cognizant of the John F. Kennedy assassination believe Oswald was not the only shooter, and that there was a conspiracy.


Kennedy’s engagement with the Soviet Union following the Cuban Missile Crisis led to an effective management of the Cold War, and set the grounds for other US presidents to pursue policies that culminated with the ending on the cold war between the USA and the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, otherwise called the Soviet Union or Soviet Russia) in the late 1980s.
Many Americans compare the shocking and memorable nature of the announcement of John F. Kennedy’s assassination with the tidings of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, before it and the memorable September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the Twin Towers and the Pentagon after it. An estimated 16 million people visited his grave over a period of three years from 1964-1966.


There are several songs out there such as Dion Francis DiMucci’s "Abraham, Martin and John," written by Dick Holler that honor the 35th president. Memorials, busts and statues; Plazas and squares; Airports and space center; Roads and bridges; Buildings; School etcetera are out there in the USA and other parts of the world in honor of John F. Kennedy. In fact, the U.S. Navy aircraft carrier USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) was named after him and served until March 23, 2007. A second USS John F. Kennedy (CVN-79) aircraft carrier that is due to be commissioned in 2018 attests to the mark he left in the annals of US. history. These add to the John F. Kennedy International Airport, in New York City, which is America’s busiest international gateway; the John F. Kennedy Space Center that manages and operates America's astronaut launch facilities in Merritt Island, Florida; as well as a Kennedy fifty-cent coin that was first minted in 1964.












          












Famous Political Assassinations in the Last Two Centuries: How They Affected the World (Chapter Six: Félix-Roland Moumié)





 


Félix Moumié


 Image result for upc leaders moumie photo
UPC Leaders (L. to R.) front row: Castor Osendé Afana, Abel Kingué, Ruben Um Nyobé, Félix Moumié, and Ernest Ouandié

Image result for cameroon map of the world

Cameroon on a map of the world


Born in 1926, Félix-Roland Moumié, was an anti-colonialist Cameroonian leader and Pan-Africanist. His assassination in Geneva on  November 03, 1960 by William Bechtel of the SDECE (the French Secret Service) with thallium is regarded as the most brazen crime committed by the French secret service abroad, and perhaps the biggest single blow suffered by Cameroonian civic-nationalists fighting for the liberation of the land from French neocolonial control.

Dr. Felix-Roland Moumié was the head of the UPC (Union des Populations du Cameroun, also called Union du Peuple Camerounais — "Union of the Populations of Cameroon") from 1958-1960. The UPC was the first historic political party to emerge from the territories of the former German colony of Kamerun. Founded in 1948, the UPC operated in both French Cameroun and British Cameroons --- Trust Territories that emerged from the 1884-1916 former German Kamerun following its partition between Britain and France as agreed in the 28 June 1919 Treaty of Versailles, the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to a close by formalizing the end of the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. The party’s primary objective was the reunification and independence of British Cameroons and French Cameroun, Trust Territories that were the successors of the League of Nations mandates, and that came into being when the League of Nations ceased to exist in 1946.

The French Trusteeship administration banned the UPC in 1955, accusing it of fomenting civil unrest, thereby forcing the party into exile in the summer of 1955. However, The UPC resurfaced in 1956 and challenged France via the international media. The British colonial authorities also banned the UPC in British Cameroons in 1958, thereby forcing most of its leadership that escaped French Cameroun and sought sanctuary in British Cameroons to flee to Egypt, Ghana, China, and other countries that were supportive of the Cameroonian cause for its reunification and independence. Ruben Um Nyobé, the party’s leader  and Secretary General; Ernest Ouandié and Abel Kingué, the party’s two vice presidents; and Felix Moumié pledged to carry on with the struggle for the reunification and independence of French Cameroun and British Cameroons, despite France’s resolve to divide and rule the peoples of the former German Kamerun. After all, the UPC commanded the support of most the people of French Cameroun and its offshoots and sister parties in British Cameroons commanded the support of the electorate there. In fact, more than 80% of educated Cameroonians supported the party and its cause for the reunification and independence of the lands of the former German Kamerun.

However, the party received its first major trauma when three years after the ban, at a time that some pundits were beginning to think that France would allow the party to start operating again as a legal political entity, the security forces of the French Trusteeship administration assassinated the UPC’s first leader Ruben Um Nyobé on September 13, 1958, near his home village.

So, when Dr. Felix-Roland Moumié succeeded Ruben Um Nyobé, he was forced to operate from exile, even though the UPC was the only party in French Cameroun that enjoyed the overwhelming support of French Camerounians and that shared a similar program with sister parties or offshoots in British Cameroons. Undeterred, he challenged France’s crackdown on the UPC in a more determined manner, so that UPC partisans were in control of much the countryside of the southern half of French Cameroun before France handed French Cameroun’s political control or sovereignty to its puppet Ahmadou Ahidjo, declared the land independent on January 01, 1960, and at the same time concluded a series of socio-economic and political agreements with the infant state that virtually made it a backyard of France.

Considered by some as the “African Che Guevara in the making”, Félix Moumié was an astute leader as well as a great organizer who before his death had met that summer of 1960 with Ernesto Che Guevara, the Argentine international revolutionary and second-in-command in the new anti-American and anti-Western government of Fidel Castro’s Cuba. In addition to that development, the Cameroonian partisan leader had successfully developed a special rapport with the bellicose Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser, the Pan-Africanist president of Ghana Kwame Nkrumah, and the stubborn nationalist Guinean head of state Sékou Touré who defied France and whisked Guinea out of the neocolonial clutches of  its former colonial master.

Many pundits think France and its Cold-War allies feared the new UPC leader’s drive in forging strong relationships with  some of the other leaders in the communist bloc who hoped to see Africa emerge one day as an economically united and politically integrated continent. The fact that those leaders promised to increase their support to Moumié’s partisan group made France and Ahmadou Ahidjo extremely nervous.

 The exiled second leader of the Cameroonian civic-nationalist movement was on a mission to Europe in October 1960, when William Bechtel invited him to dinner in a hotel in Geneva, Switzerland, posing as a journalist.  In fact, he was a member of the "Main Rouge," an offshoot of a special unit in the French secret service charged with eliminating anti-French and pro-independent African nationalists and their supporters in Europe.

Distracted by a summon to the phone by a restaurant staff, Moumié left his unfinished drink that Bechtel contaminated by pouring a lethal dose of thallium into it.  But Moumié did not drink it upon his return. So, Bechtel created another distraction, during which he poured another dose of thallium into Moumié's wine. Moumié ended up gulping down both drinks and died in a Geneva hospital on November 3, 1960, days before his return to Guinea, and much earlier than his killers had planned. The fact that the Cameroonian liberation leader took an overdose of the poison thwarted the plot France had hatched to blame Felix Moumié’s death on Guinean president Sekou Touré, who had been acting as the UPC leader’s host during his exile in the Guinean capital of Conakry.


Cameroon over time
  1. German Kamerun (1884-1911)
  2. German Kamerun (1911-1916)
  3. British Cameroons & French Cameroun: 1916-1960
  4.  British Cameroons & La Republique du Cameroun (1960-1961)
  5. British Southern Cameroons & La Republique du Cameroun (1960-1961)
  6. Reunited/Independent Cameroon today.

Félix Moumié’s assassination would be followed less than a year after by the horrendous assassination of Patrice Lumumba of Congo. The deaths of these two African civic-nationalists with a Pan-Africanist vision would be followed by a bloody repression of the popular resistance to the neo-colonial regimes in their respective countries.

With the execution of Félix Moumié's successor Ernest Ouandie in January 1971, the neo-colonial counter offensive against the anti-colonial movements in the heart of Africa would be over, spelling victory for the neo-colonial forces. This new reality would have disastrous consequences not only in the Central African region but throughout Africa. Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa has not dared to oppose French neocolonialism since the defeat of Cameroonian civic-nationalism and France’s imposition of a mafia-like system of control over its former colonies that makes use of French puppets who ae not accountable to their people.

The death of Félix Moumié, the retention of the French ban on the UPC, the UPC’s 1958 expulsion from British Cameroons, and the return to power in France of the French legend and neocolonialist General Charles De Gaulle made the realization of the Kamerunian dream of reunification seem impossible. However, offshoots of the UPC in British Cameroons and the Cameroonian civic-nationalists in British Southern Cameroons realized the reunification dream by championing the campaign in the United Nations sponsored plebiscite or referendum for the vote to reunite British Southern Cameroons with the one-year old Republic of Cameroun, the former French Cameroun that got its independence on January 01, 1960 under the anti-UPC government of the French puppet Ahmadou Ahidjo.

Deceived and subjugated by France and her puppet, English-speaking Cameroonians soon realized that they, like the defeated and subdued Francophone Cameroonians, were now under the suffocating yoke of a French-imposed system managed by the dictatorship of France’s puppet Ahmadou Ahidjo. Paul Biya, another French marionette and Ahmadou Ahidjo’s successor from the orders of France, has been in power since 1982. Close to sixty years after, Cameroon is still under the control of the anti-UPC forces put in place by France---these are Cameroonians who played no role, whether as moderates or as radicals in the nationalist struggle for the land’s reunification and independence. In fact, France aided its puppets in establishing a police state in order to impose their rule, which explains why Cameroon has never experienced rule under a head of state that is the choice of the people. 

The mafia continues. The country that embodies Africa's daring spirit is still in the grips of the forces that were against its quest for liberation, development and partnership with other progressive forces of the world.

The assassinations of Ruben Um Nyobé, Félix Moumié, Patrice Lumumba, Castor Osendé Afana, Ernest Ouandie and tens of thousands of Congolese and Cameroonian civic-nationalists was after all a successful campaign by neocolonial powers to destroy Africa's genuine independent development, as defeating the anti-colonial movements in these countries weakened the pan-Africanist drive to create an African economic union and to integrate the continent politically. After all, the Cameroon of Nyobe/ Moumié/Ouandie that was never realized, and the Congo of Lumumba that failed to be, would have been at the geographic, economic and political center of the African Union that is still the vision of many progressive Africans who hope to see the continent secure a place of respect for itself in the growing multipolar world.

Today, Félix Moumié’s sarcophagus is still missing in what was his resting place in the cemetery in Conakry, Guinea.  Albert Kingue is still buried in Cairo, Egypt. Ruben Um Nyobé, Ernest Ouandie, Castor Osendé Afana, and the other leaders of the UPC killed by the Franco-Ahidjo forces are hardly acknowledged, let alone recognized in the annals of Cameroonian history, even though their names grace streets and infrastructures in other countries of Africa and the world.


Six decades after, Cameroonians rising up to challenge the mafia state still see Felix-Roland Moumie and the other historic Union-Nationalist leaders that got killed, exiled or undermined by France and the puppets it imposed on the country, as the forces to emulate in their drive to dismantle the system imposed on the people, a system that today is under Paul Biya, a puppet imposed by France who has been in power for forty-five years (thirty-five as the president or head of state, and ten years as prime minister).









 













Thursday, October 19, 2017

Quotes by Janvier Chouteu-Chando

 Janvier_Chouteu_Chando Quotes 




 (showing 1-30 of 160)

“Kindness is a source of relief to the soul of the giver, creating a sense of fortitude that is incomprehensible to those who do not know what kindness is all about.”
― Janvier Chouteu-ChandoThe Girl on the Trail
“A grandmother’s love is selfless all the way to the bones.”
― Janvier Chouteu-ChandoMe Before Them
“…the truest feeling of happiness is the security that comes with being loved.”
― Janvier Chouteu-ChandoThe Girl on the Trail
“With true love, you can move mountains, make unusual sacrifices, live a life of deprivations and still be happy.”
― Janvier Chouteu-ChandoThe Girl on the Trail
“Take a stand that reflects the widest horizons of your soul if you don’t want to be a slave to external powers.”
― Janvier Chouteu-Chando
“What is the purpose of achieving your dream if the people you had dreamed your achievements for are no longer there to reap the benefits?”
― Janvier Chouteu-ChandoTriple Agent, Double Cross
“There are people who bring joy to our lives, but who fail to make us happy. They are the people for the moment. Never rely on their love because it is not sustainable. Their love is alike a comet that illuminates the sky, but then fades away because it lacks the sustainable energy of the sun.”
― Janvier Chouteu-Chando
“Some people live their memorable years fighting against their basic instincts only to succumb in the end to what was actually good for them.”
― Janvier Chouteu-Chando
“The narrow-minded find it convenient to create stereotypes, and then try to fit everybody, everything and every situation into those stereotypes.”
― Janvier Chouteu-Chando
“A yesterday missed can never be found even in a fine tomorrow.”
― Janvier Chouteu-ChandoFlash of the Sun
“Love has no color, love has no language and love has no religion.”
― Janvier Chouteu-ChandoMe Before Them
“We need the wisdom to accept the fact that this world abounds with issues we cannot solve; and we need to part ways with those people, ideas and things that are a vexation to the soul.”
― Janvier Chouteu-ChandoThe Girl on the Trail
“We love out of compassion, passion or a sense of commitment.”
― Janvier Chouteu-ChandoMe Before Them
“...the depth or humaneness of our love depends on the wideness of our souls.”
― Janvier Chouteu-ChandoThe Fire and Ice Legend
“Life is so sweet even though it is full of lies and half truths...”
― Janvier Chouteu-ChandoThe Usurper: And Other Stories
“We still need to give our best to life even if we do not understand the purpose of our existence on earth.”
― Janvier Chouteu-ChandoThe Girl on the Trail
“Never allow yourself to be sapped of your extraordinary energy that is the necessary ingredient for creating something new and progressive.”
― Janvier Chouteu-ChandoThe Girl on the Trail
“The writer is the cursed artist of the soul. The expression of his art is a reflection of his quest to understand man by unraveling the mysteries that have been haunting humankind from time immemorial. In the end of his journey to understand man, the writer becomes more human even though his soul ends up finding less peace.”
― Janvier Chouteu-ChandoThe Girl on the Trail
“Huh! Mankind always comes up with ideas to make up for the follies of the status quo. But what happens if those ideas are inflexible and fail to respond to the changing times. They end up betraying the people who believed in them.”
― Janvier Chouteu-ChandoDisciples of Fortune
“... People who are the spices of this world are the natural souls with instincts and impulses that have not been pruned by evolution and civilization.”
― Janvier Chouteu-ChandoThe Girl on the Trail
“A man’s true world should be the space and people that enrich his soul,”
― Janvier Chouteu-ChandoDisciples of Fortune
“Most people live lives that are full of mysteries, lives whose ultimate purpose we may never really understand. But for the sake of serenity, we must believe in life’s nobleness.”
― Janvier Chouteu-ChandoThe Girl on the Trail
“Son, it is bad for a man to be condemned by his children, more so by the sons he cherishes.”
― Janvier Chouteu-ChandoDisciples of Fortune
“Sometimes, our pride compels us to engage in costly wars when a true commitment to a compromising peace would have been the best course to pursue.”
― Janvier Chouteu-ChandoThe Usurper: And Other Stories
“Nothing crushes the soul of a father more than the loss of the beloved son he failed to lavish his love on.”
― Janvier Chouteu-ChandoDisciples of Fortune
“Human ties are the greatest distorters of reality because they tend to conceal man’s worst selfish instincts.”
― Janvier Chouteu-ChandoDisciples of Fortune
“A man can’t talk of true happiness if he has never known true love—the trusting, selfless and unconditional love that I took for granted.”
― Janvier Chouteu-ChandoThe Girl on the Trail
“Expose human ties for what they really are and you are most likely to find the worst forms of betrayal staring back at you.”
― Janvier Chouteu-ChandoDisciples of Fortune
“...only the dreamers of a dream are capable of translating their dreams into worthy practical endeavors that are devoid of haunting errors. After all, they are the ones who carefully observed the link between their dreams and reality; they are the ones who worked consciously to blend them into one.”
― Janvier Chouteu-ChandoDisciples of Fortune